History Of Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy
The problem of training dentists in Russia particularly increased in the XIX century. Dental care wasn’t provided to the patients due to the lack of staff, because they were not prepared neither in Russia (until 1881) nor in Ukraine (in 1900). In this regard, a prominent surgeon of that time, M.V. Sklifosovsky at the VI Congress of naturalists and physicians claimed the need in higher medical education in medical faculties of universities. But after the First World War the issue of training of medical staff dentist who can provide qualified help, began to be a reality.
In Kharkov and Kiev and dental medical circles of those years there was a concern that skilled and specialized dental care for population of Ukraine will be able to provide only doctors who have chosen the profession of a dentist from the beginning of the first steps of training on dental faculties of medical institutes or institutes of dental medicine where the training period may be limited to four years.
On September 30, 1921 Ukrholovprofosu Board decided to create odontology department in Kharkiv Medical Academy and relevant arrangements, as well as recruitment of students and scientific personnel. On November 8, 1921 Ukrholovprofosu Board made a decision to transform Kharkiv Medical Academy into Medical Institute with two faculties: medical and odontological. This historic decision laid the foundation to higher dental education in Ukraine, and dentistry was recognized as integral part of clinical medicine.
In 1931 Kharkov Institute of Dentistry inherited the right of odontology department, from 1967 – Poltava Medical Stomatological Institute, and the first since 1994 – Ukrainian Medical Stomatological/Dental Academy (UMSA). In its formation and development Ukrainian Medical Dental Academy went through a thorny path, which can be conventionally divided into six periods: the first – from the moment of odontology department of Kharkiv Medical Academy (1921 – 1931), the second – from the moment of transformation the faculty into independent dental Kharkov Institute ( 1931 – 1941), the third – period of evacuation to Frunze (Kyrhyzska Republic) and its functioning as a medical faculty of Kyrhyzsk Medical Institute (1941 – 1944); the fourth – re-evacuation to Kharkiv after its liberation from Nazi invaders, restoration of training base and further development of scientific research (1944 – 1967), the fifth – transfer to Poltava and its transformation into Poltava Medical Stomatological Institute (1968 – 1993); the sixth – in 1994, from transformation of the Institute into Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy.
The first period (1921 – 1931)
In September 1921 in the first year course of odontology department of Kharkiv Medical Academy 250 students with secondary education were enrolled. In the second course 169 students were enrolled, who proceeded to the second year course of the dental school during summer holidays and studied reduced course of medical and biological sciences. There were created 4 special departments of conservative dentistry to propaedeutical odontology (Head – Professor Y. M. Hofunh), prosthetic dentistry in orthodontics (the head – I. A. Baranov), operative dentistry of the jaw orthopedics and separate oral surgery and joint areas (Head – Professor M. B. Fabricant). Theoretical and general clinical subjects were studied in the corresponding departments of the institute. Kharkov State dental school became a specialized base.
During its existence the faculty formed capable, qualified, friendly staff, which along with solving educational problems made a significant contribution to the development of medical science. Staff of the faculty created 13 textbooks in dentistry and a large number of manuals for students. Famous academician and anatomist V.P. Vorobyov, author of famous works of modern methods of embalming, was among the teachers who worked on the faculty at that time. In 1924 he was entrusted to embalm the body of Lenin.
Summing up the first decade of the faculty, it should be mentioned that the faculty, together with the faculty of odontology KMI became the first specialized universities for dentists training, methodological centers of dental education in Ukraine.
The second period (1931 – 1941)
The process of formation and further development of dental faculty and further the institute was in very difficult conditions of the early 30’s. Economic difficulties of the country, finding the ways out of them demanded measures to protect human health, expand the network of hospitals, sanatoriums, rest homes, clinics, dental clinics and so on. To solve these and other tasks was only possible with the help of more qualified dental personnel.
At that time, in August 1931, dental faculty of Kharkov Medical Institute was reorganized into independent Kharkov Institute of Dental with 4-years term of study. Three special departments were created: surgical dentistry, dental therapy, orthopedic dentistry. Each department had its training base. The school was supplied with highly qualified teaching staff. M. V. Nezhdanov was appointed as Director of the Institute, Professor M. Hofunh – as deputy of scientific study. Almost all teachers of special departments had higher medical education.
From September 1931 to September 1941 the Institute prepared 650 doctors, and from 1921 – 913 dentists. Besides, 2500 dentists completed the correspondence department, and external retraining courses; got the qualification of dentists.
The third period (1941 – 1944)
On June 22, 1941 there was held a scientific conference. During the brake at 11.45 am people became aware of the treacherous attack of Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union. Teachers and students felt anger and disturbance about that. They understood what disaster came to people, homeland, and state.
On June 23 specialists-dentists graduated the academy. 180 students got their degrees. 62 students were transferred to the second course, 132 – to the third, 130 – to the fourth. On the same day, Director of the Institute G.A. Lychman issued an order that required to release from study or work those who were subject to the Red Army, and replace them, pay salaries, get all work and property from them. The order required to reorganize all courses in groups, make schedule, and organize training according to the reduced plan of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Health in accordance with special instructions. Kharkov Dental Institute sent 45 persons to the army in the first period: 27 teachers, 16 members of staff and 2 students.
The fourth period (June 1944 – May 1967)
This period in history of Ukrainian Medical Stomatological/Dental Academy (UMSA) is characterized by re-evacuation of Institute in Kharkov, its formation and development in the postwar period. Professor P.V. Vlasenko –experienced organizer, distinguished scientist, biologist by education was appointed as Director of the Institute in July 1944. Administration of the Institute and some medico-biological departments were placed in 4-storey building. Anatomical Departments were common for students of medical and dental institutions, on Kharkiv Medical Institute base. General clinical departments were located on the bases of urban hospitals (Children, 2nd Soviet and others). Departments of respiratory diseases and eye diseases were based in corresponding institutes, and skin-venereal disease – based on the 4th dermatovenerologic dispensary.
In 1954 dental institutions were reorganized in the dental faculties of medical schools, but two of them – Moscow and Kharkov – were remained independent dental health institutes. The main areas of teaching staff scientific research in dentistry during postwar years were clinical-morphological and clinical-microbiological studies of teeth diseases and development of methods for their treatment. During these years, therapists, surgeons and dentists along with orthopedic dentists made great contribution in the development and improvement of complex treatment of periodontal diseases, injuries, maxillofacial area and the restoration of defective dentition.
Research materials of postwar period are summarized in doctoral and master’s theses. During these years the foundation for several dozens of doctoral and master’s theses were laid.
The fifth period (1968 – 1993)
On May 12, 1967 the USSR Council of Ministers adopted resolution № 294 to transfer Kharkiv Medical Dental Institute to Poltava. In this regard, on May 18, the Ministry of Health Ukraine, issued the order № 269 to transfer Kharkiv Medical Dental Institute to Poltava. During 1967-1968 two stages of transfer were carried out.
During the first stage – in July – August 1967 –the redeployment of departments of medical-biological profile was carried out, and their resettlement to Poltava in the 4-story building on Shevchenko, 23 before the school year, until September 1, 1967. During the second stage – in July – August 1968 –clinical and dental departments were relocated. In 2014 the IV highest level of accreditation was approved by the Accreditation Committee of Ukraine.
Students of dental and medical faculties are fully supplied with workstations, equipped with modern devices and equipment. There are 7 classrooms for lectures with 150-250 seats each, which allow classes for students in one shift. Rectors and administration of the Academy have created the necessary conditions for high-level educational work by optimizing the method and content of training, increasing complexity and objectivity in the assessment of knowledge, improvement of financial support of the educational process, its individualization, activating education in the studying process.
For 80 years, Ukrainian Medical Stomatological/Dental Academy (UMSA) has prepared 19,882 professionals, including: dentists – 13341, doctors – 6066, nurses – 363, dental technicians – 112, Doctors – 143, Ph.D. – 674, Masters – 114.